Research & Analysis
One of the key roles of Transparency International Slovakia is to carry out professional research and provide analyses. These are based on surveys, rankings and also regular monitoring of social development in Slovakia.
- Government and Parliamentary Research and Analysis
- Municipal Research and Analysis
- CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index)
- Global Corruption Barometer
- TIS Surveys
TIS regularly monitors actions and decisions of the Slovak governmnet and the Slovak Parliament in the field of the fight against corruption. We also provide own recommendations and solution to curb corruption.
In July 2011, TIS carried out an evaluation of 12 selected legislative acts and proposals which included anti-corruption features. TIS released a ranking of MPs based on the the quality of the legislative proposals and the MPs’ voting record during the first year of I. Radičová’s government. This ranking reflects the legislative effort to increase transparency and/or to fight corruption in politics and society.
The member who was the most active in submitting and voting for anti-corruption laws was MP Miroslav Beblavy (SDKU-DS, see Annex). Five members received the second-highest ranking: Ondrej Dostal (OKS / Most-HID), Kamil Krnác (SaS), Anton Marcincin (KDH), Igor Matovic (independent) and Edita Pfundtner (Most-HID).
The lowest ranking was shared by many members of Smer-SD. Differences between Smer and SNS party members, however, consist almost exclusively of absence during the vote, rather than their views on the proposed anti-corruption law.
KDH (see Annex) was the most active political party in voting for high-quality anti-corruption laws, as it was in the last term. On the other hand, SMER-SD came last in the voting as its MPs voted against most of the positively ranking legislative proposals.
One of TIS’ key research areas is municipal government. Based on our research, TIS regularly compiles a set of anti-corruption recommendations for municipalities.
Examples of recent TIS actitivies
Slovak local governments administer more than € 3.5 billion each year. 50 per cent of Slovaks live in 100 largest municipalities. To see how open and transparent these municipalities are towards their tax payers, Transparency International Slovakia (TIS) conducted the Open Local Government 2012 study. During September-November 2012 TIS evaluated information available on local websites, replies provided by municipalities through Freedom of Information requests, as well as anti-corruption measures already in force and created the ranking of the most and least open municipalities in Slovakia.
Šaľa, Martin, and Rožňava have the most open self-governments in Slovakia for 2012. The least open are Vranov nad Topľou and Bytča.
|4.||Bratislava – Petržalka||71%||A-|
|5.||Žiar nad Hronom||69%||B+|
According to the latest edition of the world most cited corruption index, Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, Slovakia continues to decline. According to the index measuring the perceived levels of public sector corruption in 2009 on a scale from 0 (most perceived corruption) to 10 (least perceived corruption), Slovakia has achieved a score of 4.3. Total occupied the 59th-61st place of 178 surveyed countries, and compared to previous year declined by 5 bars.
This year three countries are placed in the first place – Denmark, New Zealand and Singapore (the same score 9.3). Corruption in the public sector was most perceived by respondents in Somalia (1.1, 178th), Afghanistan and Myanmar (both 1.4, 176th-177th place).
Slovakia belongs to the tail of the first third of the countries with the lowest perceived corruption. The only country that is worse in the European Union is Italy (3.9, 67th), Romania (3.7, respectively. 69th-72nd), Bulgaria (3.6, 73rd-77th) and Greece (3, 5, 78th-84th). Compared to Slovakia best score of 5.0 in 2008, Slovakia has decreased by 0.7 points, in comparison with th last year the score was declined by by 0.2 points.
Press release (PDF) (in Slovak)
Every fourth Slovak household, handling any problem last year in health care, gave the bribe. Further, the most frequent experience was with bribery on land offices (15.8%), offices offering certificates and licenses (15.6%) and courts (14.8%). It resulted from the survey Global Corruption Barometer 2010 conducted by Transparency International Slovakia, in cooperation with the United Nations Development Fund and the British Embassy in Slovakia.
Research results presented by Gabriel Sipos on December, 9th, 2010, The World Day of against Corruption shows that Slovaks perceive the courts as the most corrupt institution. Almost half of the population is confident (45.3%) that the courts are completely or very corrupt. For other positions Slovaks see the officials in state and public administration (38.1%) and business (36.9%).
Only 8% of Slovaks asked for a bribe in the last year reported corruption. One third of those would not report corruption argues, that it would not solve anything (31.5%), one fourth of them is afraid of retaliation (25.9%).
The Global Corruption Barometer, conducted by Transparency International, is a survey that assesses general public attitudes toward, and experience of, corruption in dozens of countries around the world. Worldwide seventh year of Barometer 2010, is historically the largest and includes the views of more than 90 000 respondents from 87 countries. In Slovakia Barometer was surveyed for the first time.
For more information:
- Press release presenting the results of the Global Corruption Barometer (PDF) (in Slovak)
- Questions and Answers about Global Corruption Barometer (PDF) (in Slovak)
- Sites of survey (in English) – http://transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/gcb
- Full results of the Slovak part of the survey together with a questionnaire (PDF) (in Slovak)
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion polls, which are commissioned by the European Commission. TIS is mostly interested in the eurobarometer which focuses on the topic of corruption and opinions of Europeans on it. Since the accession into the EU, there have been 3 barometers on corruption (2005, 2007, 2009). The methodology for collectiong data for a Eurobarometer are different from the CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index – see above). Eurobarometer is based on data from a representative sample of general population. Therefore it is more likely that the results of a Eurobarometer reflect especially petty or small corruption (e.g. bribes by ordinary citizens for preferential medical treatment). By contrast, CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index) reflects more economic corruption (e.g. public tenders, privatisation, etc.) Hence, the results of the last CPI and Eurobarometer neither contradict each other, nor are incompatible. They reflect different forms of corruption and their data sources and respondents are different.
- Eurobarometer: Attitudes of Europeans towards Corruption Full report, Nov. 2009 (English)
- Eurobarometer: Attitudes of Europeans towards Corruption Full report, April 2008 (English)
- Eurobarometer: Opinions on organised, cross-border crime and corruption, March 2006 (English)
TIS regularly orders opinion polls and does own surveys thanks to which it follows the public perception of corruption in Slovakia. TIS surveys and opinion polls similarly to Eurobarometer opinion polls are carried out by external providers which then perform the surveys on representative samples of populations (usually more than 1000 respondents).
The last TIS’ national survey to be carried out in this way was the December 2009 Perception of Corruption in Slovakia opinion poll. It for example showed that compared to 2006, perception of clientelism at courts increased by a third and that the Robert Fico’s government received the same score for the fight against corruption as the second Mikuláš Dzurinda’s government had received at the time.
In August 2010, TIS had a qualitative opinion poll carried out in the towns of Martin and Krupina and an extra quantitative survey in Martin. The surveys brought interesting results regarding the perception of locals on corruption in their respective municipalities.
- Perception of Corruption in Slovakia, Nov. 2009 [Slovak]
- Qualitative opinion poll in Martin and Krupina, Aug. 2010 [Slovak]
- Quantitative opinion poll in Martin, Aug. 2010 [Slovak]